The Robinson projection balances area and shape distortion.
Plane Projection A plane projection is created by placing an imaginary screen directly above or below a globe. Mercator distorts the size of geographical objects because its linear scale increases with the increase in latitude.
They map parallels to complex curves bowing away from the equator, and meridians to complex curves bowing in toward the central meridian. So essentially a map projection is an arithmetic formula developed to deal with the problem of how to get the Earth onto a flat surface.
Geradus Mercator devised this cylindrical projection for use in navigation in In fact, AuthaGraph World Map is so proportionally perfect, it magically folds it into a three-dimensional globe. They are used to classify the majority of projections, including some that are not analytically geometrically constructed.
Distortions on maps of countries or cities are not evident to the eye and can only be identified when computing distances and areas. Other meridians are curves or possibly straight from pole to equatorregularly spaced along parallels.
Conic In standard presentation, conic or conical projections map meridians as straight lines, and parallels as arcs of circles. Azimuthal In standard presentation, azimuthal projections map meridians as straight lines and parallels as complete, concentric circles.
Which developable surface to use for a projection depends on what region is to be mapped, its geographical extent, and the geometric properties that areas, boundaries, and routes need to have, given the purpose of the map.
The cone and globe meet along a latitude line. They map parallels to complex curves bowing away from the equator, and meridians to complex curves bowing in toward the central meridian. Other Typically calculated from formula, and not based on a particular projection Polyhedral maps Polyhedral maps can be folded up into a polyhedral approximation to the sphere, using particular projection to map each face with low distortion.
Cylindrical Projections A cylindrical projection is produced by wrapping a cylinder around a globe representing the Earth. Type of projection[ edit ] Cylindrical In standard presentation, these map regularly-spaced meridians to equally spaced vertical lines, and parallels to horizontal lines.
Interrupted Projection There are many different types of interrupted projection maps.
Three large families of map projection, plus several smaller ones, are generally acknowledged. Cylindrical aspects A cylinder is placed over a globe. In this example, Greenland appears to be many times larger than it really is.
Pseudoconical In standard presentation, pseudoconical projections represent the central meridian as a straight line, other meridians as complex curves, and parallels as circular arcs. Different maps differ in the relative accuracy of the depiction of the area, the shapes of objects, actual distances, and compass direction.
The equator has a latitude of zero degrees. The cone is cut along the line of longitude that is opposite the central meridian and flattened into a plane. Oct 12, · While there are many different types of maps that exist within the discipline of cartography, there are six types that immediately come to my mind.
Physical map: Physical maps display the physical features of a place, including land and water features such as mountains, plains, rivers, and oceans.
Learn about the different types of map projections and the different projection techniques that mapmakers use, including the Mercator projection. Understand how a map projection is made, and how cartographers use different projections depending on the purpose of the map.
The mapmaker may also choose to allow a little distortion in all four of these aspects to produce the right type of map. Conformality: The shapes of places are accurate. Types of Map Projections The number of map projections made possible is limitless, and hundreds have been published.
The focus of this study of map projections, however, will involve twenty types of map projections and their characteristics, with examples given using maps from the GIS Research & Map.
Learn about the different types of map projections and the different projection techniques that mapmakers use, including the Mercator projection, the Robinson projection, and. Map Projections - types and distortion patterns. The shape of the Earth is represented as a sphere.
It is also modeled more accurately as an oblate spheroid or an ellipsoid.A globe is a scaled down model of the Earth. Although they can represent size, shape, distance and directions of the Earth features with reasonable accuracy, globes are not practical or suitable for many applications.Map projection types